10 Natural And Cultural Heritage Sites In Denmark
You may have wondered where that famous hunting ground between ice and sea is to be found. And you may never have known. Well, that striking site is the Aasivissuit-Nipsat, the Inuit Hunting Grounds, found in Denmark.
Denmark, a Scandinavian country, comprising Jutland peninsula and other numerous island, and located within the cold region of the North Pole, boasts of so many other cultural and historic sites worthy of tourism. These sites range from the Ilulissat Ice fjord to Kronborg Castle, Wadden sea, stevens Klint, Christiansfeld, which is a Moravian church settlement, and the par force hunting landscape in North Zealand. So many other sites still stand out in this country to deserve your travel trip. Checkout places we have below for your excitement.
Aasivissuit – Nipisat. Inuit Hunting Ground between Ice and Sea
Climate and topography in West Greenland along a vast west-to-east transect from the ocean and fjords to the ice sheet contains evidence of 4200 years of human history. Fisher-hunter-gatherer cultures have created an organically evolved and continuing cultural landscape based on hunting of land and sea animals, seasonal migrations and settlement patterns, and a rich and well-preserved material and intangible cultural heritage. Large communal winter houses and evidence of communal hunting of caribou via hides and drive systems are distinctive characteristics, along with archaeological sites from the Saqqaq (2500-700 BC), Dorset (800 BC-1 AD), Thule Inuit (from the 13th century) and colonial periods (from the 18th century). The cultural landscape is presented through the histories and landscapes of seven key localities from Nipisat in the west, to Aasivissuit, near the ice cap, in the east. The attributes of the property include buildings, structures, archaeological sites and artefacts associated with the history of the human occupation of the landscape; the landforms and ecosystems of the ice cap, fjords, lakes; natural resources, such as caribou, and other plant and animal species that support the hunting and fishing cultural practices; and the Inuit intangible cultural heritage and traditional knowledge of the environment, weather, navigation, shelter, foods and medicines.
Christiansfeld, a Moravian Church Settlement
The 18th century settlement of Christiansfeld in South Jutland is an exceptional example of a Moravian Church planned colony settlement, which reflects the Moravian Church’s societal and ethical ideals. Founded in 1773, it was built as a colony of the Moravian Church, a Lutheran free congregation centred in Herrnhut, Saxony. Christiansfeld is one of many exceptional settlements, and it presents the best-preserved example of a northern European colony settlement constructed around a central Church Square. The town presents an intact and well-preserved collection of buildings, oriented along two tangential east-west streets surrounding the Church Square and integrates a cemetery placed outside of the town. The town reflects the Moravian Church’s societal structure, characterised by large communal houses for the congregation’s widows and unmarried men and women. The architecture is homogenous and unornamented, with one- and two-storey buildings in yellow brick and with red tile roofs. The proportions, materials, and craftsmanship contribute to the town’s special atmosphere of peace and harmony.
Jelling Mounds, Runic Stones and Church
Located in central Jutland, Jelling was a royal monument during the reigns of Gorm, and his son Harald Bluetooth, in the 10th century, and may possibly pre-date this era. The complex consists of two flat-topped mounds, 70 metres in diameter and up to 11 metres high, which are almost identical in shape and size and construction, being built of turf, carefully stacked in even layers, with the grass side facing downwards. After introducing Christianity into Denmark, and integrating Norway with the country, Harald Bluetooth proclaimed his achievements by erecting a stone between the two mounds and building the first wooden church at Jelling.
The large runic stone is located exactly midway between the two mounds. Its incised inscription, beneath an inscribed interlaced Nordic dragon, reads “King Harald bade this monument be made in memory of Gorm his father and Thyra his mother, that Harald who won for himself all Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christians”. On the south-west face is the earliest depiction of Christ in Scandinavia, with an inscription relating to the conversion of the Danes to Christianity between 953 and 965. The original position of an adjacent smaller runic stone is not known. However, the stone has been in its present location since about 1630. Its inscription reads “King Gorm made this monument to his wife Thyra, Denmark’s ornament”. A small simple church of whitewashed stone is on the site of at least three earlier wooden churches, all of which were destroyed by fire. Excavations in 2006 have revealed evidence of a magnificent palisade surrounding the monument, and parts of a ship setting of unknown dimension.
Marking the beginning of the conversion of the Scandinavian people to Christianity, the Jelling Mounds, runic stones and church are outstanding manifestations of an event of exceptional importance. This transition between pagan and Christian beliefs is vividly illustrated by the successive pagan burial mounds, one pagan runic stone, another commemorating the introduction of Christianity, and the emergence of the church representing Christian predominance. The complex is exceptional in Scandinavia, and the rest of Europe.
Kronborg Castle is located north of Elsinore on a strategically important site commanding the Sound (Øresund), a narrow stretch of water between Denmark and Sweden. From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, Kronborg Castle played a key role in the history of Northern Europe.
The Sound is the gateway to the Baltic Sea and from 1429 to 1857, Denmark controlled this passage thanks to Kronborg Castle, positioned at the narrowest part of the Sound, which is only four kilometres wide. Around 1.8 million ships passed through the Sound during this period and all of them had to pay a toll at Kronborg Castle. For this reason Kronborg Castle and its fortress became a symbol of Denmark’s power. The Sound toll was not just a source of income; it was also a political instrument. By favouring the shipping trade of selected nations or by allowing their navies free passage, Denmark was in a position to create important alliances. The control of the Sound was essential and it became an important issue in the motives and courses of several wars. For this reason Kronborg Castle was of great significance, not just for Denmark, but for all major seafaring nations.
In the 1420s, Eric of Pomerania built the first castle, the ”Krogen”, on this unique site. Remnants of the old walls can still be seen at the castle today. In 1574 King Frederik II began the construction of the outstanding Renaissance castle and the surrounding fortifications, which would eventually be known as Kronborg Castle. Following the disastrous fire of 1629 the castle was reconstructed almost exactly as it was before. The Chapel, which was the only building not to have been ravaged by the fire, has preserved its original altar, gallery, and pews, with fine carvings and painted panels.
The castle itself is a Renaissance building with four wings surrounding a spacious courtyard. The bright sandstone facades are characterized by horizontal bands and the front walls are balanced by towers and spires. The castle is extensively and richly decorated with sandstone ornaments in unique and imaginative designs. The Great Hall (the banqueting hall) is one of the most exquisite rooms from this time – and the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. Kronborg Castle is also world famous as the setting of Shakespeare’s Hamlet.
Kronborg Castle was admired for its beauty as a castle and feared for its strength as a fortress. The castle was protected by tall ramparts and strong angular bastions. The overall impression of Kronborg Castle is closely associated with its architecture and location, which stress the castle’s symbolic, commercial, and strategic importance.
Kujataa Greenland: Norse and Inuit Farming at the Edge of the Ice Cap
Kujataa is a sub-arctic farming landscape located in the southern region of Greenland. The cultural landscape is comprised of dramatic natural features and processes that have shaped the farming and grazing traditions in two distinct periods and cultures: Norse Greenlandic people (10th to 15th century) and modern Inuit farmers (18th century to present). The property consists of five components, which together represent the demographic and administrative core of the two farming cultures.
Although these two cultures are distinct, each are pastoral farming cultures situated on the Arctic margins of viable agriculture, relying on a combination of farming, pastoralism and marine mammal hunting. The cultural landscape represents the earliest introduction of farming to the Arctic, and the Norse expansion of settlement beyond Europe. The Norse farming settlements laid the physical foundations for Inuit farming in Greenland many centuries later.
The attributes of the property include the structures and archaeological sites and artefacts associated with the Norse settlement of Kujataa; the home fields of the farms, pasturelands and meadows; vegetation patterns associated with farming and grazing; the landscape settings (including landforms and ecological characteristics) of the five components; Inuit farming houses and associated buildings (listed historic buildings); and a wealth of intangible attributes including language, historical place names, ecological knowledge, crafts and seasonal rituals and activities.
Roskilde Cathedral, on the Island of Zealand is a large brick-built aisled Gothic-style basilica, with twin spires and a semi-circular gallery within. Placed on a small hilltop overlooking the Roskilde Fjord the Cathedral is a very significant landmark. Around it, in its setting, the structure of the medieval town is still visible, within which, some medieval buildings and a number of fine 17th and 18th century houses remain.
Built about 1170, the original Cathedral structure was in Romanesque form but, when half-built, the plan was changed under the influence of the incoming Gothic style from France. In the following centuries, chapels, porches, and other structures were added, each in the current architectural style of the time. As a result, the Cathedral has emerged as an epitome of the history of European architecture in a single structure.
As with many early structures, the bricks in the external walls vary in size and colour. The interior walls were originally left bare, apart from the vault and arch soffits, which were plastered. The entire interior was subsequently coated with a greyish-yellow coloured smooth stucco, and most of the rich original wall paintings have disappeared.
The Cathedral’s royal monuments commemorate an outstanding series as royal burials that have occurred from the 10th century until the present time. With only one exception since the reformation, all Danish kings and queens have been buried in the Cathedral, their tombs representing the evolution of funerary monumental art.
Roskilde Cathedral is an outstanding example of the early use of brick in the construction of large religious buildings in Northern Europe. Because of the successive addition of chapels and porches to commemorate Danish royalty since the 16th century, it is also an exceptional example of the evolution of European architectural styles in a single structure.
The par force hunting landscape in North Zealand
The par force hunting landscape in North Zealand series covers the former royal hunting forests of Store Dyrehave and Gribskov, traces of connecting roads between them, and the former royal hunting park of Jægersborg Dyrehave/Jægersborg Hegn. The entire former royal forest landscape covered a much larger area with a number of royal castles. The components have been selected as they encompass a completeness of attributes illustrating the development of the Baroque par force hunting landscape as an emblematic and functional spatial entity. Designed and created intentionally by Man, the par force hunting landscape exemplifies a 17th-18th-century landscape created to perform courtly hunts. Its layout results from the combination of French and German design models based on a central-star grid system, combined with an orthogonal grid subdivision, which optimised its function during the hunt, and makes it emblematic of an absolute European monarch, his role in society, and his reason and power to control nature. The Outstanding Universal Value of the landscape lies in the spatial organisation of the hunting forests, hunting roads, buildings, emblematic markers, numbered stone posts, stone fences, and numerical road names conveying an understanding of the practical application of the design as a means of orientation.
Located on the west coast of Greenland, 250 km north of the Arctic Circle, Greenland’s Ilulissat Icefjord is a tidal fjord covered with floating brash and massive ice, as it is situated where the Sermeq Kujalleq glacier calves ice into the sea. In winter, the area is frozen solid. One of the few places where ice from the Greenland ice cap enters the sea, Sermeq Kujalleq is also one of the fastest moving (40 m per day) and most active glaciers in the world. Its annual calving of over 46 cubic kilometres of ice, i.e. 10% of all Greenland calf ice, is more than any other glacier outside Antarctica, and it is still actively eroding the fjord bed. The combination of a huge ice-sheet and the dramatic sounds of a fast-moving glacial ice-stream calving into a fjord full of icebergs make for a dramatic and awe-inspiring natural phenomenon.
The Greenland ice cap is the only remnant in the Northern Hemisphere of the continental ice sheets from the Quaternary Ice Age. The oldest ice is estimated to be 250,000 years old, and provides detailed information on past climatic changes and atmospheric conditions from 250,000 to around 11,550 years ago, when climate became more stable. Studies made over the last 250 years demonstrate that during the last ice age, the climate fluctuated between extremely cold and warmer periods, while today the ice cap is being maintained by an annual accumulation of snow that matches the loss through calving and melting at the margins. This phenomenon has helped to develop our understanding of climate change and icecap glaciology.
Stevns Klint is a globally exceptional testimony to the impact of meteorite impact on the history of life on Earth. The property provides evidence of the Chixulub meteorite impact that took place at the end of the Cretaceous Period, c.67 million years ago, and is widely believed to have caused the end of the Age of the Dinosaurs. The property has further iconic scientific importance due to its association with the radical theory for asteroid driven extinction developed through the seminal work of Walter and Luis W Alvarez, with their co-workers. Stevns Klint is highly significant in terms of its past, present and future contribution to science, and makes these values accessible to the wider global community as a whole.
The Wadden Sea is the largest unbroken system of intertidal sand and mud flats in the world, with natural processes undisturbed throughout most of the area. The 1,143,403 ha World Heritage property encompasses a multitude of transitional zones between land, the sea and freshwater environment, and is rich in species specially adapted to the demanding environmental conditions. It is considered one of the most important areas for migratory birds in the world, and is connected to a network of other key sites for migratory birds. Its importance is not only in the context of the East Atlantic Flyway but also in the critical role it plays in the conservation of African-Eurasian migratory waterbirds. In the Wadden Sea up to 6.1 million birds can be present at the same time, and an average of 10-12 million pass through it each year.