7 World Heritage Sites in Brazil
Brazil is not just a home of Soccer but also a place of exciting world traveling destination. its remarkable carnival which is the Rio de Janeiro Carnival, is the biggest carnival celebrated in the world, makes a great influence in its culture and heritage. Brazil, greatly seen in South America, is filled with exotic landscape, casting waterfall, Sun-kissed beach and exquisite National parks for wildlife and great mountains. No visitor has been exhausted with the thrill of a rollercoaster view of Brazil’s Eco-tourism destination, rather they make trip upon trip without exhaustions.if you are dearly interested to visit Brazil. The list below will be of a guide to lead through.
Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves
The Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves are located in the Brazilian states of Paraná and São Paulo and extend over nearly 470,000 hectares, representing one of the largest and best-preserved domains of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and one of the most threatened biomes of the world. The protected areas that constitute the site contain great biological wealth and are a good illustration of the evolution of the rare remnants of Atlantic Forest of South-eastern Brazil. The region, which has a large number of rare and endemic species, is exceptionally varied. The site also has an exceptional aesthetic interest, with its altitudinal gradient ranging from mountains to the sea, its estuary, wild rivers, coastal islands, numerous waterfalls and karst phenomena.
The site is part of the Serra do Mar domain and extends across the adjacent coastal plain, which includes the estuarine complex of Iguape-Cananéia-Paranaguá. This range of habitats, from the summits of mountain ranges to vast stretches of deserted beaches, guarantees its great diversity. However, it is all of these ecosystems and landscapes that express the uniqueness of the region.
Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves
Of indescribable beauty, the Fernando de Noronha Marine National Park, located at a distance of about 340 km off the Brazilian coast, is formed by volcanic peaks of a submerged mountain chain. Nearly 70% of the main island of Fernando de Noronha, 21 smaller islands and islets of the archipelago, as well as most adjacent waters to a depth of 50 metres are part of the property. The Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve, the only atoll in the South Atlantic, is located about 150 km west of Fernando de Noronha. It is an elliptical reef including two small islands surrounded by a marine reserve. With these two protected areas, the property covers an area of 42,270 ha and a buffer zone of 140,713 ha.
At the heart of a vast ocean surface, the Brazilian Atlantic Islands form an oasis of fertile waters, which are extremely important breeding and living places for tuna, shark, turtle and marine mammals, and which play a crucial role in the natural fish restocking of the region. Two species of sea turtle breed there: the hawksbill and green turtle, for which the Rocas Atoll is considered the second most important breeding site of Brazil. These islands are home to the largest concentration of tropical seabirds in the Western Atlantic, and include the only examples of Insular Atlantic Forest and the only oceanic mangrove in the South Atlantic. Dolphin Bay (Baía dos Golfinhos) hosts an exceptional population of resident dolphin, and at low tide, Rocas Atoll provides a spectacular seascape of lagoons and tidal pools teeming with fish and a great variety of shellfish, sponges, molluscs, corals, etc.
Central Amazon Conservation Complex
This site of more than 6 million hectares is the largest protected area in the Amazon Basin and one of the richest areas of the planet in terms of biodiversity. First, Jaú National Park was inscribed in 2000. The property was subsequently expanded in 2003 with the addition of three other protected areas (Anavilhanas National Park, Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, and Mamairauá Sustainable Development Reserve). The classification of these four sites developed into the current property entitled Central Amazon Conservation Complex.
Located primarily at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers, the property contains the majority of the ecosystems recorded in the Amazon, including dryland forests and periodically flooded lowland forests (várzea and igapó, as well as black-water or white-water watercourses, waterfalls, swamps, lakes and beaches. The Anavilhanas Archipelago, one of the largest river archipelagos in the world, is constantly evolving and is home to the largest array of electric fish on the planet. The site protects a wide variety of flora and fauna, including rare and endangered species such as the giant Arapaima (the largest freshwater fish in South America), the giant otter, Amazonian manatee, the black caiman and two species of freshwater dolphins.
Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks
The site of the Cerrado Protected Areas includes the Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks located in the Brazilian central plateau in the State of Goias. Both parks help protect the Cerrado biome, one of the oldest and most diverse ecosystems in the world. For millennia, these sites have served as refuge for many rare and endemic species of fauna and flora, including during periods of climatic fluctuations. Both sites remain essential for maintaining the biodiversity in the Cerrado, especially in any future climate change scenario.
The flora of the Cerrado is rich. It includes between 350 and 400 species of vascular plants per hectare, including many endemic plants. The property also contains populations of large mammals, including the giant anteater, giant armadillo, maned wolf, jaguar and pampas deer, but also the rhea, the largest bird of South America. The site is also extremely important in maintaining the hydrological regime as, due to its geological features and soils, it is proving to be a key area for aquifer recharge and the alimentation of several watercourses that supply power to the Amazon basin and the Pantanal, in the basin of La Plata.
Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves
The Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves, located between the southern coast of the state of Bahia and northern coast of the state of Espírito Santo, consist of eight separate protected areas containing representative remnants of the Atlantic Forest (dense rainforest) and a type of coastal shrubland vegatation (“restingas”) associated with the Atlantic Forest. Three national parks (Descobrimento, Monte Pascoal and Pau Brasil), two federal biological reserves (Sooretama and Una) and three special reserves (Veracruz, Pau Brasil/Ceplac and Linhares) extend over a total area of almost 112,000 hectares. This property contains great biological wealth and illustrates the evolution of the few remaining areas of Atlantic Forest in north-eastern Brazil. With a high rate of endemism and an evolutionary stage of great interest to science and conservation, its biodiversity reflects longstanding ties with the major forest ecosystems of the continent, now interrupted.
Iguaçu National Park
The Iguaçu National Park is a World Heritage property of 169,695.88 hectares located in the State of Paraná, in southern Brazil, adjacent to the Iguazú National Park, also a World Heritage property in Argentina. Both properties, together with some protected areas, are contiguous major remnants of the interior Atlantic Forest, once a much larger forest area, along the junction of the Iguaçu and Paraná rivers where Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil converge.
The landscape is the result of volcanic processes dating back 500 million years, which forged its stunning geomorphological features. The Park’s main attraction – and a major destination for international and domestic tourism – is the impressive waterfalls system of the Iguaçu (or Iguazú) river, renowned for its visual and acoustic beauty, which spans nearly three kilometers with vertical drops of up to 80 meters. The river, named after the indigenous term for “great water”, forms a semi-circle in the heart of the two parks and constitutes the international border between Argentina and Brazil before flowing into the mighty Paraná River, 25 kilometres downstream from the park. The property houses the single entirely preserved hydrographic basin of the State of Paraná, the basin of the Floriano River.
Both Parks also comprise semi-deciduous subtropical rainforests with a high degree of diversity and endemism, harboring numerous rare charismatic species. Today they are mostly surrounded by a landscape that has been strongly altered due to heavy logging, both historic and into the present, the intensification and expansion of both industrial and small-scale agriculture, plantation forestry for pulp and paper and rural settlements. Jointly, the Brazilian and Argentinian parks total around 250,000 hectares with this property’s contribution being 169,695.88 hectares.
Pantanal Conservation Area
The Pantanal Conservation Area comprises a cluster of four contiguous protected areas: the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and the Special Reserves of Acurizal, Penha and Doroche, covering a total area of 187,818 hectares. This protected area complex is located in western central Brazil, in the extreme south-west of the Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul State and the international border with Bolivia and Paraguay.
The property includes the greater part of the Amolar mountainous ridge with a maximum altitude of 900 meters. The transition between the seasonally flooded areas and the mountains is abrupt. This ecological gradient is unique to the whole Pantanal region and offers a dramatic landscape. Located between the river basins of Cuiabá and Paraguay, the site plays a key role in the spreading of nutritive materials during flooding as well as in the maintenance of fish stocks in the Pantanal. Although the property only covers a small part of the Pantanal (one of the largest wetlands of the world, covering around 14,000,000 ha), it is representative and of sufficient size to ensure the continuity of ecological processes. It also protects numerous threatened species, such as the giant armadillo, giant anteater, giant otter, marsh deer and the hyacinth macaw, the largest species of parrot. The jaguar population in the property is probably the biggest in the entire Pantanal region. The number of aquatic plant species found there is also remarkable.